Today, patients and consumers can access cannabis products in numerous forms from various markets. While  synthetic-cannabinoids are becoming more common, most of these products start with a plant-Cannabis sativa L. This remarkable plant is grown for its fiber with industrial and tactile applications, its seeds for food and oil, and it flowers, used for creating cannabis & cannabinoid derived products for therapeutic use.  (Hemp and cannabis are the same plant but hemp is legally defined as having low levels of psychocative compounds <.3 % THC.)

Most available cannabis chemovars (or varieties) grown for its flower in the U.S. are comprised of hybrid varieties, falling into two of the three sub-classifications of the Cannabis sativa species: Sativa & Indica. These are primarily categorized as Type I: High THC, Type II: THC/CBD, Type III: High CBD (with less common Type IV: High levels CBG & Type V: Low cannabinoid—AKA hemp). These varieties encompass a variety of the 100+ other cannabinoids & 120 terpenes.

Commonly referred to as "strains," these varieties are marketed based on properties such as color, taste, fragrance, psychoactivity & therapeutic effects. However, "chemovar"  is  more accurate term for cannabis varieties, as "strains" typically refers to types of bacteria & viruses. Breeders are constantly creating new chemovars, naming them accordingly. Since chemovar names lack regulation, they are not the most reliable basis for patients to choose products.

The terms Sativa, Indica, & Hybrid actually denote the sub-classifications of the Cannabis Sativa plant. However, in current cannabis markets, these terms are used to describe the effects of cannabis varieties, which result from cannabinoid & terpene ratios. Despite their misuse, these terms can be helpful in product selection (particularly when terpene information is unavailable). Here is how these terms are used: 

“Sativa dominant” : Implies stimulating, psychoactive effects, likely resulting from THC dominance & terpenes, described as a “mind high.”

“Indica dominant”: Implies a relaxing or sedative effect, likely due to lower THC, the presence of CBD &/or specific terpenes, also described as a “body high.”

 “Hybrids”: Represent effects somewhere in between Sativa & Indica.

In the context of cannabis products, combinations of "cannabinoids" or more accurately the "phytocannabinoids" and terpenes are chosen to produce varying effects. While over 100+ phytocannabinoids & 120 terpenes have been identified in the plantonly a few are available in usable amounts and only about 20+ cannabinoids have commercial available methods for testing their presence or potency.  

Common cannabinoids found in usable quantities on the cannabis plant:

THCA - THC, CBDA - CBD, CBCA-  CBC, CBGVA-CBGV, THCVA-THCV, CBDVA - CBDV, CBCV- CBC, CBGA - CBG

Accompanied by a variety of terpenes found in quantities of 1–3%

In many markets patients can choose from a variety of products that with a variety of cannabinoid and terpenes content and potencies. The established safety profile of cannabis is based on whole plant cannabis that is free of adulterants and contaminants.   

Flower

Explore the benefits of using cannabis flowers as medicine. Flower provides quick onset of effects and can provide rapid relief for pain and other conditions. Discover the evidence supporting cannabis as a potent medicinal resource.

Whole Plant Extracts

Whole-plant cannabis extracts, known as full-spectrum cannabis extracts, aim to preserve the full profile of beneficial compounds in the cannabis plant. These compounds work together to enhance therapeutic benefits through the "entourage effect."

Concentrates

Delve into the world of potent extracts carefully crafted for high cannabinoid content. Explore the precise extraction methods and advanced formulations that provide versatility, purity, and potency. Elevate your cannabis journey with concentrates.

Distillates & Isolates

Cannabis distillates and isolates are highly refined cannabis extracts that typically focus on a single cannabinoid. Due to their refining process, the final product is almost entirely made up of the target cannabinoid.

Synthetic Cannabinoids

Additives & Adulterants

Additives and Adulterants may be used by producers to add weight, dilute, or add fragrance to their products.